Calcium and You
  • Spanish
  • Print
  • Share
    • Email

      Share a Pediatric Patient Education Handout

      Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'Calcium and You' and will not need an account to access the content.

      Enter each recipient's email address. At least one recipient is required.

      Subject: Pediatric Patient Education from the AAP –

      ×
    • Facebook
    • Twitter
  • PDF
  • Custom Handout

No Alt TextAs you grow, you need calcium to build strong bones and a healthy body. Getting plenty of calcium while you are young also makes your bones strong and keeps them strong for your entire lifetime. 
In fact, your body's need for calcium is at its highest point between the ages of 9 and 18 years. However, most young people in the United States don't get enough calcium in their diets. 

What is calcium?

Calcium is a mineral that many parts of your body need. Its main job is to build strong bones and teeth, which contain 99% of your body's calcium. Your bones are a bank for calcium. A very small amount of calcium is in body fluids such as blood. But this small amount of calcium does important things. It has a role in helping your muscles move and in controlling your blood pressure. 
If you make the right choices, the foods you eat or the things you drink can provide the calcium you need. If you don't get enough calcium, your bones will weaken. This is because your body will take calcium from your bones to meet its needs. 

Why should I bank calcium?

When you are young, your body can deposit calcium in your "bone bank" by increasing your bone density. Density is a measure of how thick your bones are. Higher density bones are stronger and less likely to break. 
As you get older, you lose the ability to bank calcium. By the time you reach young adulthood, your bones reach their peak bone density. That means your bones are as dense (or packed with calcium) as they will get—for life. Then your body mainly withdraws calcium from your bone bank. 
People who do not have enough calcium in their bone bank can get osteoporosis when they get older. Osteoporosis is a disease that can make bones so fragile that they can break from the stress of just bending over. People with osteoporosis may not know they have the disease until 1 or more bones fracture. By this time, it is usually too late to undo the damage to their bones. 

Is calcium all I need for strong bones?

Calcium does not work alone. A healthy diet, weight-bearing physical activity, and vitamin D are also important for developing strong bones. 
  •  
    Healthy diet—Proper nutrition is very important to keep bones healthy.
  •  
    Physical activity—Studies show that regular, weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, jumping, and playing tennis, basketball, or soccer help you build strong bones.
  •  
    Vitamin D—Sources of vitamin D include
     
    •  
      —Sunlight (Your body makes vitamin D when your skin is exposed to sunlight.)
    •  
      —Milk and other dairy products fortified with vitamin D
    •  
      —Vitamin D–fortified drinks and other foods, such as cereals (check the label)
    •  
      —Multivitamins

How much calcium do I need?

How much calcium your body needs varies according to age. You need the most calcium between 9 and 18 years of age. 
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the following daily intake of calcium: 
AgeCalcium Need (mg per day)Servings of Low-Fat Dairy Products to Meet Need
4–8 years8003 servings
9–18 years1,3004 servings
19–50 years1,0003–4 servings

How can I get calcium?

The best way to get the calcium that you need is by eating and drinking foods that naturally contain calcium. Many foods contain calcium. 
Low-fat milk and other dairy products are very good sources of calcium. They naturally offer the most calcium per serving. For example, 1 cup of milk has about the same amount of calcium as 4 cups of broccoli. 
Many foods contain some calcium, but the best sources include the following: 
  •  
    Low-fat milk, yogurt, and other milk products are generally super sources of calcium.
  •  
    Flavored milks, such as chocolate or strawberry, have as much calcium as plain milk but may have more calories.
  •  
    Dark-green, leafy vegetables such as kale and turnip greens are low in calories and high in calcium. However, spinach is not a good source of calcium.
  •  
    Broccoli, tofu, chickpeas, lentils, split peas, and canned salmon and sardines (and other fish with bones) also are good sources of calcium.
  •  
    Calcium-fortified juices and cereals can help boost the calcium in your diet, but limit yourself to 8 to 12 ounces (11/2 cups) of juice a day.
(See "Counting calcium" at the end of this publication.) 

Calcium supplements

Certain medical conditions, diets, or lifestyle choices can make it hard for you to get enough calcium by eating the right foods. In some cases, your pediatrician may recommend a calcium supplement, such as a daily dose of a calcium-containing antacid or another type of calcium supplement. If you take calcium supplements, don't take more than a total of 1,000 mg of them a day. 

Lactose intolerance

Some young people have significant lactose intolerance, which means they have trouble digesting lactose (the sugar in milk). In most people, lactose intolerance is of a mild form. These people can digest dairy products in small amounts with a meal. Cheeses and yogurts in which the lactose is partially broken down can provide good sources of calcium for them. There are preparations of the enzyme lactase that make lactose easier to digest. Also available is milk with reduced lactose. Nondairy foods that are rich in calcium, as well as calcium-fortified foods, also can be good choices for people who have lactose intolerance. 
In some cases, your pediatrician may recommend a calcium supplement. 

What decreases my calcium intake?

The following can hurt your bone health: 
  •  
    Drinking a lot of soda (pop or soft drinks)—Studies show that this may make you more prone to bone fractures. This may be because sodas often take the place of milk or other calcium-rich drinks. Cola-type sodas also contain phosphorus, which may interfere with how your body handles calcium.
  •  
    Certain diets—Some diets may not provide enough calcium, such as a vegetarian diet that excludes dairy products. Before you start any diet, check with your pediatrician to make sure it includes enough calcium.
  •  
    Caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco—All of these can cause you to lose calcium from your bones.
  •  
    Certain medicines and diseases—Some medicines and kidney and intestinal diseases can cause you to lose calcium from your bones. Ask your pediatrician if any of the medicines you are taking affect your bones and what you can do to protect them.

What can I do to get more calcium?

There are many ways to get more calcium, such as 
  •  
    Choose low-fat milk instead of soda at restaurants or school cafeterias.
  •  
    Boost the calcium in salads with beans (such as garbanzo or kidney), cheese, broccoli, almonds, or tofu.
  •  
    Choose yogurt as a light meal or snack.
  •  
    Create special drinks with low-fat milk. Add flavorings. Make shakes or smoothies with low-fat dairy products.
  •  
    Use low-fat yogurt on its own or with fresh fruit. Add it to shakes, salad dressings, dips, and sauces or use it to top pancakes or waffles.
  •  
    Try calcium-rich foods that may be new to you and your family.
  •  
    Try calcium-fortified juice and calcium-fortified waffles or cereal for breakfast.
When possible, choose sources of calcium that are low in fat or have no fat at all. (Removing fat from a food does not take away calcium.) 
Or make trade-offs in your food choices. For example, if you go for a thick, chocolate milk shake, skip the French fries. 

How to read food labels

Food labels list the amount of calcium in a serving as "% Daily Value," not as milligrams (mg). Though this % Daily Value only pertains to adults, it can serve as a guide to choose healthier foods for children. 
100% Daily Value = 1,000 mg of calcium per day 
To find out how many milligrams of calcium are in a serving, place a zero (0) at the end of the number listed for the daily value. For example, a serving of calcium-fortified orange juice might list the amount of calcium as 30% of the daily value. 
30% Daily Value = 300 mg calcium 
In general, a food that lists a daily value of 20% or more for calcium is high in calcium. Any food that contains less than 5% of the daily value is low in calcium. 

Counting calcium

If you are between the ages of 9 and 18 years, you need about 1,300 mg of calcium each day. Keep track of what you eat for a few days to see if you are getting enough calcium. 
If a medical condition or restricted diet is keeping you from getting the calcium you need, talk with your pediatrician. 
The following tables show the amount of calcium in a variety of foods. Note: Calcium amounts may vary. Check nutrition labels on products for exact amounts. 
Milk GroupCalcium (mg)
Milk*, regular or low-fat, 1 cup245–265
Yogurt, nonfat, fruit, 1 cup260
Cheese, 1-oz slice200
Cheese, pasteurized, 3/4-oz slice145
Ice cream, 1/2 cup90
Ice cream, soft-serve, 1/2 cup115
Frozen yogurt, 1/2 cup105
Pudding, instant, 1/2 cup150
Soy milk, calcium-fortified, 1 cup200–500
*Low-fat milk has as much or more calcium than whole milk.
Protein GroupCalcium (mg)
Almonds, chopped, 1 oz65
White beans, cooked, boiled, 1 cup160
Salmon, canned with bones, 3 oz205
Tofu, firm, calcium-fortified, 1/2 cup205
Vegetables/FruitsCalcium (mg)
Broccoli, cooked, 1 cup60
Collards, cooked, 1 cup265
Tomatoes, canned, stewed, 1 cup85
Orange juice, calcium-fortified, 1 cup300
Orange, 1 medium50
GrainsCalcium (mg)
English muffin, plain, enriched, 195
Pancakes (made with milk), 180
Corn tortilla, 145
Selected breakfast cereals, calcium-fortified, 3/4–1 cup100
Instant oatmeal (made with water), calcium-fortified, 1/2 cup65
Prepared FoodsCalcium (mg)
Bean and cheese burrito110
Cheese pizza, 1 slice120
Cheeseburger140
Taco, 1 small220
Source: US Department of Agriculture 
The persons whose photographs are depicted in this publication are professional models. They have no relation to the issues discussed. Any characters they are portraying are fictional. 
×

Why create an account?

If your institution provides your access to this website, you may link that access to your individual AAP account. You may then access the website remotely and unlock features for individual accounts. To do so, sign in to your AAP account any time you are actively authenticated on the website via your institution (look for your institution’s name in the sign-in box to verify authentication). Once signed in, your account will be linked to your institution’s access for 120 days, after which you must repeat the process for continued access.

×

You must be signed into an individual AAP account to use this feature.

Please sign in to your AAP account in order to use this feature. If you need an AAP account (free for anyone to register an account), please click on "Create Account" below and complete the one-time registration form.

  • Forgot password or AAP Login?
  • Create Account
  • Want remote access to your institution's subscription?
This is the touchback warning message modal.
×
×

TERMS AND CONDITIONS

GOVERNING USE OF WEBSITE AND MATERIALS

The following terms and conditions are an agreement (the “Agreement”) governing your access and use of the [Pediatric Care Online (PCO)] website (the “Website”) and its content (collectively, the “Materials”). Please read these terms carefully. If you agree to all of the terms of this Agreement please click the “I Agree” button below to indicate your acceptance and you will automatically be taken to the Website. If you do not wish to be bound by these terms, you may not access or use the Materials - in such event you should click the “I Do Not Agree” button below and follow the instructions to obtain a refund of any subscription fees paid by you.

1. Materials. The American Academy of Pediatrics (“AAP”) hosts the Website and related Materials on its servers and makes them available via the Internet to subscribers for non-commercial research and education purposes and for use in providing healthcare services. In consideration of payment of the applicable subscription fee, the AAP is willing to provide access to the Materials to you and, if applicable, your Users (as defined below), subject to all of the following terms. You acknowledge that certain portions or content of the Website or Materials may contain information, materials or content provided by a third party provider or licensor (a “Provider”) and that the liability and obligations of such Providers is limited as provided herein.

2. Access and License.

(a) Subject to the terms of this Agreement, the AAP grants to you a non-exclusive, non-assignable and non-transferable right to access and use the Materials for the purpose of providing healthcare services to your patients (the “License”).

(b) “User” means you and your authorized users for whom a subscription has been activated. For individual enrollment use of the Materials is limited solely to you, and you agree not to permit others to access the Materials using your account. For group enrollment, access to the Materials is limited to you and your authorized Users for whom you have obtained an authorized subscription. You agree not to permit others to access the Materials using your account. You agree to issue passwords or other access information only to authorized Users and use reasonable efforts to ensure that Users do not divulge their passwords and other access information to any third party.

(c) You agree to make all Users aware of, and ensure that all of your Users comply with, all of the terms of this Agreement. You will monitor compliance of your Users with the terms of this Agreement. You acknowledge that you will be held responsible for any access or use of Materials traceable to your Users and/or User ID. You agree to immediately notify us in the event you determine, or have reason to believe, that an unauthorized party has gained access to the Materials and to take all reasonable steps, both to ensure that such activity ceases and to prevent any recurrence.

(d) Under the License, Users are only permitted to:

(i) Access and display the Materials in connection with providing healthcare services.

(ii) Electronically save and print off individual parts or documents of the Materials for personal use in connection with providing healthcare services.

(iii) Distribute the Materials in print or electronic form to other Users for the purposes of providing healthcare services.

(iv) Supply a printed copy of individual documents or parts of the Materials to individual patients of a User on request or on an ad-hoc basis in connection with providing healthcare services, provided that such dissemination does not result in distribution of a substantial or material portion or volume of the Materials to such patient.

(v) Supply print or electronic copies of individual documents from the Materials to governmental authorities for legal or regulatory purposes.

(e) You are responsible for furnishing, at your expense, any computer, networking, telecommunications and other equipment necessary for you or your Users to access the Internet and connect to the Website and Materials.

(f) The AAP shall use commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Website and Materials to be accessible to the Internet twenty-four (24) hours each day except for scheduled maintenance and required repairs, and except for any interruption due to causes beyond the reasonable control of the AAP. The AAP and its Providers do not warrant that access to the Materials or Website will be uninterrupted or error free or that any information, software, or other materials available on or accessible through the Materials or Website is free from viruses, worms, Trojan horses, or other harmful components. THE AAP AND ITS PROVIDERS WILL NOT BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES OR REFUNDS SHOULD THE WEBSITE OR MATERIALS BECOME TEMPORARILY UNAVAILABLE OR IF ACCESS TO THEM OCCASIONALLY BECOMES SLOW OR INCOMPLETE. In no event shall the AAP or its Providers be liable for downtime, system speed or slow-down caused by the misoperation or failure of the Internet or any other network not under the sole control of the AAP or by any other cause beyond the reasonable control of the AAP or its Providers. The AAP will restore access to the Website and Materials as soon as commercially practicable in the event of an unscheduled interruption or failure thereof.

3. License Restrictions. The License shall be subject to the following restrictions and conditions, and without the separate written approval of the AAP neither you nor any User shall:

(a) Use, or permit any third party to use, the Materials for any purposes other than in connection with providing healthcare services to Users’ patients.

(b) Distribute, publish or make available any part of the Materials (in print or electronic form) to anyone other than Users or Users’ patients except as explicitly permitted herein.

(c) Remove, obscure, or change any copyright notices, author identification, disclaimers or other proprietary legends incorporated in the Materials.

(d) Alter, abridge, adapt or modify the Materials or prepare derivative works based upon the Licensed Materials or incorporate the Materials into other materials, nor permit third parties to do so.

(e) Make the Materials available to the public via the Internet, World Wide Web or other un-secure network (except pursuant to features or functionality specifically built into the Website or Materials to facilitate such access).

(f) Make agreements for access to the Materials with individuals, organizations, vendors, affiliates, or partners, who are not your individual Users.

(g) Use, or allow the use of, the Materials in contravention of any federal, state, local, foreign or other applicable law, or any rules or regulations of regulatory or administrative organizations.

4. Changes to the Materials. The AAP reserves the right at any time, in its discretion, for any reason and without prior notice: (i) to change, suspend or discontinue any aspect of the Materials, including the availability of any feature, database or content; (ii) to limit or restrict user access to certain features available on the Materials; and (iii) to suspend users use of the Materials, temporarily or permanently; provided that in the event any such change materially affects your ability to use the Materials or makes them materially less useful to you, then you may, within thirty (30) days of the change, terminate this Agreement by giving fifteen (15) days written notice to the AAP, and the AAP will refund any unearned portion of your subscription fee. If the AAP gives you notice that it is withdrawing materials because it no longer retains the right to publish them or that it has reasonable grounds to believe they infringe copyright or are defamatory, obscene, unlawful or otherwise objectionable, then you agree promptly after receipt of such notice to take all commercially reasonable efforts to prevent further access to the applicable Materials by Users.

5. Fees. You agree to pay to the AAP the current subscription fee detailed at enrollment or otherwise provided on the Website, including the then-current fee during any renewal term. The AAP reserves the right, without prior notice, to suspend your use of the Materials if owed fees are past due.

6. Term and Termination.

(a) The initial term (“Term”) of this Agreement will be for the period corresponding to the subscription fee that you have paid. The Term will automatically extend for additional renewal periods for which you subsequently pay the then-current subscription fee. This Agreement and your and your Users’ right to access and use the Materials will automatically expire at the end of the Term.

(b) The AAP may terminate this Agreement by giving notice to you if you or one of your Users materially breaches any provision of this Agreement.

(c) Upon termination of the License for any reason, you and your Users shall immediately cease all further use and distribution of the Materials. The following rights and obligations shall survive any termination: (a) any obligation that matured prior to the effective date of the termination or expiration; and (b) Sections 7(b), 8, 9, 10 and 11.

7. Trademarks and Approvals.

(a) You are authorized to use the AAP’s trademarks, logos and brand names (the “AAP Trademarks”) only in connection with reproducing any such AAP Trademarks as incorporated in the Materials. You may not make any other uses of the AAP Trademarks, including uses in promotional and marketing materials, advertising, and web pages, without the AAP’s prior written approval, to be granted in the AAP’s sole discretion. You agree not to distribute, display or publish any such materials without such approval.

(b) You acknowledge that the AAP is the sole and exclusive owner of the AAP Trademarks and that any use by you shall inure solely to the benefit of the AAP. Upon termination of this Agreement for any reason, you agree to cease use of the AAP Trademarks.

8. Proprietary Rights.

(a) As between you and the AAP, title to and ownership of the Materials and all materials and data provided by the AAP in connection with this Agreement, any materials or other derivative work based on or derived therefrom or improvements thereto, and all copyrights and associated intellectual property rights, will belong to the AAP. To the extent that any such items are not deemed a work-made-for-hire or you otherwise retain rights therein, you agree to and hereby grant, assign and convey to the AAP all of your right, title and interest, if any, in such items and in all patents, copyrights and other intellectual property rights therein. You agree to cooperate fully with the AAP for the purpose of securing, reserving and protecting the AAP’s rights in such items, including executing any documents requested by the AAP. The only rights to the Materials granted to you are the rights to use the Materials in accordance with the License and all rights not specifically granted herein are reserved by the AAP.

(b) You acknowledge and agree that at all times the Materials, including any portion or alteration of the Materials and any derivative work based on the Materials, shall belong to the AAP and may only be used in accordance with the terms of this Agreement.

9. Disclaimer of Warranties.

(a) Although the AAP believes the information in the Materials to be accurate and timely, because of rapid advances in the field of pediatrics medicine and our reliance on information provided by outside sources, the AAP and its Providers make no warranty or guarantee concerning the content of the Materials, including the accuracy or reliability of the content in the Materials, or on other sites to which we link. When clinical matters are discussed, the opinions presented are those of the discussants only. The material discussed in the Materials is not intended to present the only or necessarily the best pediatric method or procedure, but rather presents the approach or opinion of the discussant. You acknowledge that the recommendations and information in the Materials do not indicate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as a standard of medical care. You and your Users assume full responsibility for the appropriate use of medical information contained in the Materials, and you agree to hold the AAP and its Providers harmless from any and all claims or actions arising from you or your Users’ use of the Materials in accordance with Section 10(e).

(b) THE MATERIALS AND WEBSITE AND THE INFORMATION, SOFTWARE, AND OTHER MATERIAL AVAILABLE ON OR ACCESSIBLE THEREFROM ARE PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" AND "AS AVAILABLE" BASIS WITHOUT WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES REGARDING TITLE, NONINFRINGEMENT, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS OR COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE MATERIALS, OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ALL OF WHICH THE AAP AND ITS PROVIDERS DISCLAIM. If implied warranties may not be disclaimed under applicable law, then ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARE LIMITED IN DURATION TO A PERIOD OF SIXTY (60) DAYS FROM THE DATE THE MATERIALS ARE FIRST ACCESSED BY YOU. Some states do not allow limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, so the above limitation may not apply to you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state.

10. Limitation of Liability and Damages.

(a) The AAP shall indemnify, defend and hold you, and your affiliates, and Users harmless from and against any loss, damage, costs, liability and expenses (including reasonable attorney fees) arising out of any legal action taken against such entities claiming that the Materials used as contemplated by this Agreement infringe the U.S. copyright or any other U.S. proprietary or intellectual property rights of any person. The AAP shall have no obligation under this Section for any such claims, actions or losses which are based upon: (i) you or your Users’ use of the Materials in a combination with materials or products not supplied by the AAP which violate the rights of third parties, (ii) the modification of the Materials or the use or distribution of such modified content, or (iii) use of the Materials in a manner other than that permitted herein.

(b) UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL THE AAP OR ITS PROVIDERS BE LIABLE TO YOUR OR ANY AUTHORIZED USER OR OTHER PERSON FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL EXEMPLARY, PUNITIVE OR OTHER DAMAGES (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION LOSS OF PROFITS, PERSONAL INJURY/WRONGFUL DEATH OR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM LOST DATA OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION), ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT OR THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE MATERIALS OR WEBSITE, YOUR RELIANCE ON OR USE OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE MATERIALS, OR THAT RESULT FROM MISTAKES, OMISSIONS, INTERRUPTIONS, DELETION OF FILES, ERRORS, DEFECTS, DELAYS IN OPERATION OR TRANSMISSION, OR ANY FAILURE OF PERFORMANCE, WHETHER BASED ON WARRANTY, CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY, AND REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THE AAP OR ITS PROVIDERS OR AGENTS KNOWS OR HAS REASON TO KNOW OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

(c) IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AAP OR ITS PROVIDERS BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR ANY ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES ARISING FROM INDEPENDENT APPLICATION OF THE CONTENT OF THE MATERIALS TO PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES NOR FOR YOUR OR YOUR USERS’ RELIANCE ON THE WEBSITE OR MATERIALS FOR ANY PURPOSE.

(d) EXCEPT FOR CLAIMS BROUGHT PURSUANT TO SECTION 10(a), THE AAP’S AND ITS PROVIDERS’ LIABILITY (WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, NEGLIGENCE, STRICT LIABILITY IN TORT OR BY STATUTE OR OTHERWISE) TO YOU OR TO ANY THIRD PARTY FOR ANY AND ALL CLAIMS RELATED TO OR ARISING OUT OF THIS AGREEMENT OR THE MATERIALS, SHALL NOT IN THE AGGREGATE EXCEED THE FEES PAID BY YOU HEREUNDER IN THE TWELVE (12) MONTHS PRIOR TO THE OCCURRENCE GIVING RISE TO THE CLAIM.

(e) Except as to those matters for which the AAP is obligated to indemnify you under Section 10(a), you agree to indemnify, defend and hold the AAP and its Providers and agents harmless from and against any loss, damage, costs, liability and expenses (including reasonable attorney fees) arising out of your or your Users’ use of the Materials, including any claim or legal action taken against the AAP or its Providers or agents related to or in any way connected with (i) any use of the Materials by Users or (ii) any failure by you to perform your obligations in relation to this Agreement.

(f) Certain portions of the Website or Materials may contain information or content provided by Mead Johnson & Company for use in connection with the Website as a sponsor of the Website (“Mead Johnson Content”). With the sole exception of Mead Johnson Content, Mead Johnson & Company is not the author of, nor responsible for, the content of the Website or Materials. You agree that Mead Johnson & Company’s liability and obligations are limited as a Provider in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, including Sections 9 and 10 herein.

(g) Certain portions of the Website or Materials may contain medical reference information or database content provided by Lexi-Comp, Inc. for use in connection with the Website (“Lexi-Comp Content”). You agree that Lexi-Comp, Inc.’s liability and obligations are limited as a Provider in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, including Sections 9 and 10 herein. The Lexi-Comp Content is intended to serve the user as a rapidly accessible, concise initial reference resource and not as a complete reference resource. It does not include information concerning every therapeutic agent, laboratory or diagnostic test or procedure available. The Lexi-Comp Content is clinically oriented and is intended to be used only by Users who are: (1) researchers who will not use the information for medical diagnosis or treatment, and (2) physicians and other competent healthcare professionals who will rely on their own discretion and judgment in medical diagnosis and treatment. Neither the AAP nor its Providers directly or indirectly practice medicine or dispense medical services and, as such, assume no liability for data contained in the Lexi-Comp Content. You and your Users assume full responsibility for the appropriate use of medical information contained in the Lexi-Comp Content, and you agree to hold the AAP and its Providers harmless from any and all claims or actions arising from your or your Users’ use of the Lexi-Comp Content.

11. General .

(a) Force Majeure. Except for your obligations hereunder to pay the AAP, neither party shall be responsible for delays or failures in performance resulting from acts or circumstances beyond the control of such party, including, without limitation, acts of God, strikes or other labor disputes, riots, acts of war, malfunction of portions of the Internet or another third party network, governmental regulations promulgated after the effective date of this Agreement, communication line failures, power failures, equipment failures, fires or other disasters, and acts of third parties including hackers and crackers.

(b) Changes to this Agreement. The AAP reserves the right to change or modify this Agreement at any time by presenting you with a new set of terms before you access the Materials. Following your agreement to such modified Agreement, this Agreement shall be of no further effect and the modified agreement shall control. In the event you refuse to agree to any such new agreement, the AAP will, if requested, refund any unearned portion of your subscription fee.

(c) Political Activities. The AAP is a Section 501(c)(3), not-for-profit corporation, and as such, does not participate in any political activities. You are prohibited from participating in political activities while using the Materials or the Website.

(d) Governing Laws and Venue. This Agreement will be governed by the laws of the State of Illinois applicable to contracts made and to be performed in that state. The parties hereby submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal and state courts located in Cook County, Illinois, U.S.A. to resolve disputes related to this Agreement or the Materials.

(e) Waiver and Severability. A waiver of any breach or default under this Agreement shall not constitute a waiver of any other right arising out of any subsequent breach or default. Either party's failure to enforce any term of this Agreement shall not constitute a waiver of any rights to enforce subsequent breaches. If any term of this Agreement is held to be invalid, the parties agree that such invalidity will not affect the remaining terms.

(f) Notice. Any notice required under this Agreement shall be in writing and sent to the other party’s address shown on the Website or provided during enrollment, or such other address as may be provided by each party from time-to-time. Notices shall be effective when received.

(g) Assignment. Neither party may assign this Agreement to any third party without the prior written consent of the other party.

(h) Entire Agreement. This Agreement and any attachments represent the entire agreement between the parties and supersede any previous contemporaneous oral or written agreements, commitments, representations or communications regarding the subject matter of this Agreement. Any modification to this Agreement must be in writing and signed by a duly authorized agent of both parties. Signed facsimile copies of this Agreement, and attachments will legally bind the parties to the same extent as original documents.

(i) Privacy and Compliance with Law. Each party shall comply with all applicable laws and regulations in exercising its rights and performing its obligations hereunder. Collection and use of personal information in connection with the Website is subject to the AAP’s privacy policy posted on such Website. Despite any representations concerning privacy, the AAP reserves the right to disclose without notice to you any information in our possession if required to do so by law or upon a good-faith belief that such action is necessary to comply with the law, to protect or defend our rights or property, or to respond to an emergency situation.

By clicking on the “I AGREE” button below, (1) YOU AGREE TO ALL OF THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT, (2) YOU ARE CONSENTING TO ENTER INTO THIS AGREEMENT IN ELECTRONIC FORM AND (3) YOUR CLICK SHALL CONSTITUTE YOUR ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE ACCEPTING THIS AGREEMENT. Any person accepting this Agreement on behalf of another entity further represents and warrants that such individual is a duly authorized representative, having the power and authority to bind such entity to this Agreement. If you do not wish to be bound by these terms, you may not access or use the Materials - in such event you should click the “I Do Not Agree” button below and follow the instructions to obtain a refund of any subscription fees paid by you.

I DO NOT Agree I Agree